查尔斯·L. 斯特恩,小.

Title insurance is ubiquitous in the American real estate market. 贷款人通常要求抵押权人的产权保险作为结束以不动产担保的贷款的一个条件. 许多业主, including most commercial real estate investors 和 developers, purchase owner’s title insurance to protect their investments.

路易斯安那州的产权保险, 和大多数州一样, is typically issued using forms drafted by the American L和 Title Association (ALTA). 在世界杯正规买球网站的经验中, 大多数所有权保单持有人对标准ALTA保单所涵盖的所有权事项类型有合理的良好意识, 他们往往不太了解可赔偿损失的措施,他们有权在一个所有权缺陷无法治愈的事件.

产权保险的起源及其损失计量

产权保险是19th 世纪美国创新. 它的发明是为了保护买家和贷款人在当时有效的结算程序下所面临的与所有权相关的重大损失.

在所有权保险发明之前, purchasers 和 lenders had to rely on attorney title opinions, 而世界杯正规买球网站则不得不依赖摘要, 由他们或专业的抽象家准备的. 在交易完成后发现所有权问题的所有者或出借人可以向世界杯正规买球网站或代理人追讨由此产生的损害赔偿, but only if the lawyer or abstractor had been negligent in his (和, 在19th 世纪,它总是“他的”)标题作品. 如果世界杯正规买球网站或代理人有过失, then the courts could award damages as in any other case of negligence. Those damages might include the loss of property value due to the title defect, 以及其他间接损害赔偿, 比如利润或租金的损失, 额外的持有成本,如税收, 财产保险, 和税收, 成本去除, 重新设计, 或搬迁的改进, 甚至是情感上的痛苦.

但是这个系统有两个漏洞. 第一个, even when negligence on the part of the attorney or abstractor could be proven, 这些专业人员不一定有能力支付所有人或贷款人由于未披露的所有权缺陷所遭受的全部损失, particularly in an age in which professional liability insurance was far from widespread. 其次,对21岁来说更重要st 世纪的目的, sometimes a title defect might arise when no one had been negligent—that is, the attorney 和 the abstractor had done their jobs competently, 尽管他们尽了最大的努力, it turned out that the property was burdened by a title defect.

This is precisely what happened in an 1868 Pennsylvania case called 沃森v. Muirhead, 57 Pa. 161 (1868), in which the purchaser suffered a complete loss of his investment in a piece of immovable property, 但没有向任何人求助. 在反应 华生, 宾夕法尼亚立法机关通过1870年代早期颁布的法令批准了产权保险的发行, 和 the American title insurance industry proceeded from there.

所有权保险有一个明显的优势,那就是它是一种不要求投保人证明过错的赔偿合同. 作为回报, 然而, 产权保险不提供赔偿每一个损失,可能源于一个被保险的产权缺陷,不能治愈. 而, 标准的ALTA所有权保险单赔偿被保险人因所有权缺陷而造成的财产价值损失, 但不包括其他形式的损害. This is a limitation of which many policy holders are unaware unless 和 until they make a claim.

标准ALTA保单中的损失计量

Under the current 2006 ALTA owner’s 和 mortgagee’s policies of title insurance, the insurer has several options when the insured makes a claim. 如果索赔包括在内, 然后根据保单条件第7段, the insurer can (a) pay the amount of the insurance policy to the insured, (b) settle with the adverse claimant 和 so vindicate the insured’s title, or (c) pay the insured “the loss or damage provided for under this policy.”

进一步, 在保险公司行使这些期权之前, 根据本条款第5款,它有权为被保险人就不利索赔人提起的任何诉讼进行辩护, as well as the right to pursue curative action on behalf of the insured. And even if the insurer’s defense of the insured’s title is ultimately unsuccessful, 保险单条款第9(b)款规定,在法院作出不利于被保险人所有权的最终裁决之前,保险人“对损失或损害不承担责任”.

世界杯正规买球网站假设保险公司试图在诉讼中击败时效所有权索赔人,但没有成功,然后选择选项(c)——即, it decides that it will pay the insured “the loss or damage provided for under this policy.“损失的衡量标准是什么?? The measure is established by paragraph 8(a) of the Conditions of the 2006 ALTA policy forms. 下段(8日), 保险人的责任“不得超过”保单限额或“被保险的所有权价值与本保单承保风险下的所有权价值之间的差额”中的较低者.”[1] 换句话说, 对被保险人的赔偿是以保险所有权瑕疵造成的财产价值损失为衡量标准的.

在实践中, that means that if the defect results in a complete loss of the insured’s title to the insured property, the compensable loss is simply the fair market value of the property. 如果缺陷导致部分损失——可能是部分保险财产所有权的丧失或负担, 如留置权或奴役, affecting the insured property—then the loss is measured by valuing the property as insured (that is, as if there were no defect) 和 the property with the defect, 用差值来衡量损失. 听起来很简单, 虽然在实践中, there can be disputes about valuation under the policy’s loss formula.

But what about other types of loss that might stem from the title defect? 假设, 例如, 被保险人因所有权缺陷而损失了高利润的销售,或因所有权诉讼悬而未决而推迟了大型商业开发工程的开工. 在一般情况下, 除非有办法以某种方式将这些损失纳入第8(a)条规定的价值差异计算。, they will be viewed as consequential damages that are not recoverable under the title policy.

这种持有的一个例子是 美国第一银行诉. 第一个美国运输标题. Co., 585 F. 3d 833, 838-39 (5th 圆形的. 2009), 第五巡回法院, 应用路易斯安那州法律, held that consequential loss or damage is not recoverable under a st和ard title insurance policy. 除了, 保险公司为保护被保险人的权利而拖延诉讼的追加费用或损失,不包括在内, so long as the insured has proceeded in a “reasonably diligent” manner. 看到 世界杯正规买球网站称号Ins. Co. v. 合作的一个集团, 572 So. 2 d 517(佛罗里达州. 经销. Ct. 应用程序. 4th 经销. 1990)(产权保险公司对诉讼未决期间33个月的施工延误所造成的利润损失不承担责任).

产权保险政策对可赔偿损失的衡量的这些限制有时会使被保险人感到意外. But they are baked into both the language 和 history of the ALTA policy form. 作为对所有权缺陷广泛覆盖的回报, title insurers have limited the measure of loss to the value differential resulting from the title defect. Other forms of damage, particularly consequential losses, are not covered under the policy.

When Might a Title Insurer be Responsible for Consequential Damages?   

然而,在一些有限的情况下,所有权保险人可能要对相应的损害赔偿负责. Such liability stems not from the terms 和 conditions of the title policy, but from breach of contract or breach of other duties owed by the insurer to the insured. 所有权保险人违反保险合同的, then it can be held responsible for all damages generally allowable for breach of contract, 包括间接损失.

例如, 如果保险公司不恰当地拒绝承保, 即使它的理由可能是合理的, then it is liable for all the foreseeable consequences of its breach. 政策限制不适用. E.g.,回家喂. 干腊肠. 银行v. Ticor标题Ins. Co., 695 F. 3d 725 (7th 圆形的. 2012); 马特森岭v. Clear Rock Title, LLP, 824 N.W. 2d 62,630(明尼苏达州. 2012). 如果保险公司未能按照标准ALTA保单的条件第9(a)条的要求“以合理勤勉的方式”进行治疗性诉讼,则其自身也可能面临相应的损害. 如果不努力采取治疗行动, then the insurer can be exposed to damages for the resulting delay. E.g.、Tierra控股有限公司诉. Ticor标题Ins. Co. 佛罗里达州的., 2011 U.S. 经销. 词汇61781年代.D. 特克斯. 2011).

一些被保险人还对所有权承保人提出合同外索赔,理由是他们违反了充分搜索所有权和披露所有缺陷的所谓义务. Such claims are typically asserted by insureds to circumvent the measure of loss in the title policy. Whether such claims are viable is a controversial topic that is beyond the scope of this short piece.

只要说在所有权保险人是否对其被保险人在保险合同中明确承担的义务之外负有任何责任的问题上,各州之间存在很大的分歧就够了. 据这位作家所知, there are no reported decisions on this topic 应用路易斯安那州法律.

Conclusion – It’s Important to Underst和 the Fine 打印 of a 产权保险 Policy

所有类型的保险都是如此, the fine print of a title insurance policy is important for insureds to underst和. 了解产权政策如何衡量可赔偿损失可以指导被保险人在产权索赔过程中导航. 最后, 当不利索赔确实出现时,承保人和被保险人能够合作,这对双方都是有利的. 当被保险人从一开始就确切地了解如果不利索赔不能被击败或解决,损失的衡量标准将是什么时,这就变得容易了.

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[1] ALTA抵押权人的政策进一步限制了损失,使其不能超过担保债务的金额.

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了下: 商业地产, 行业新闻, 住宅地产, 产权保险, 产权保险, 法律标题
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