作者:查尔斯L. 斯特恩,小.

产权保险在美国房地产市场上无处不在. Lenders generally require mortgagee’s title insurance as a condition before closing on a loan secured by immovable property. 许多业主, 包括大多数商业地产投资者和开发商, 购买业主产权保险以保护他们的投资.

路易斯安那州的产权保险, 和大多数州一样, 通常使用美国土地所有权协会(ALTA)起草的表格发放. 根据世界杯正规买球网站的经验, most title policy holders have a reasonably good sense of the types of title matters that are covered under a st而且ard ALTA policy, they often underst而且 far less about the measure of compensable loss to which they are entitled in the event of a title defect that cannot be cured.


产权保险是19th 世纪美国创新. It was invented to protect buyers 而且 lenders from significant title-related losses to which they were exposed under the closing procedures in effect at the time.

在产权保险发明之前, 买方和贷款人不得不依赖世界杯正规买球网站的所有权意见, 而世界杯正规买球网站们则不得不依赖于摘要, 由他们或由专业的抽象者准备. An owner or lender who discovered a title problem after a transaction had been closed could pursue recovery of the resultant damages from the lawyer or abstractor, 但前提是世界杯正规买球网站或抽象派画家在他的作品中有疏忽, 在19世纪th 世纪,它总是“他的”)的标题作品. 如果世界杯正规买球网站或文摘人疏忽了, 然后,法院可以像在其他过失案件中一样判给损害赔偿金. 这些损害可能包括所有权缺陷造成的财产价值损失, 以及其他相应的损害, 比如利润或租金的损失, 额外的持有成本,如税收, 财产保险, 和税收, 移除成本, 重新设计, 或搬迁改进, 甚至是精神上的痛苦.

但是这个系统有两个漏洞. 第一个, 即使可以证明世界杯正规买球网站或文摘人存在过失, those professionals did not necessarily have the means to pay the full measure of loss suffered by the owner or lender due to the undisclosed title defect, 尤其是在那个职业责任保险还远未普及的年代. 第二,对21来说更重要st 世纪的目的, 有时,所有权缺陷可能出现在没有人疏忽的情况下, 世界杯正规买球网站和抽象派画家出色地完成了他们的工作, 尽管他们尽了最大努力, 事实证明,这处房产存在所有权缺陷.

这正是1868年发生在宾夕法尼亚州的一件案子 沃森v. Muirhead, 57 Pa. 161 (1868), 买方在一块不动产上的投资完全损失, 但对任何人都没有追索权. 作为对 华生, the Pennsylvania legislature authorized the issuance of title insurance through a statute enacted in the early 1870’s, 美国的产权保险行业就是从那里开始的.

Title insurance has the obvious advantage that it is a contract of indemnity that does not require the policy holder to prove fault. 作为回报, 然而, title insurance does not provide compensation for every loss that might stem from an insured title defect that cannot be cured. 而, the st而且ard ALTA title insurance policy indemnifies the insured for the loss of property value attributable to the title defect, 但不包括其他形式的损害. 这是许多投保人不知道的限制,除非和直到他们提出索赔.


根据现行2006年ALTA业主和抵押权人的产权保险政策, 当被保险人提出索赔时,保险公司有几种选择. 如果索赔包括在内, 然后根据保单条件第7段, 保险人可以(a)向被保险人支付保险单金额, (b)与不利索赔人和解,从而维护被保险人的所有权, 或(c)赔偿被保险人“本保单规定的损失或损害”.”

进一步, 在保险公司行使这些期权之前, it has the right under paragraph 5 of the Conditions to defend the insured against any litigation brought by an adverse claimant, 以及代表被保险人采取治疗行动的权利. 即使保险人对被保险人所有权的辩护最终失败, the policy provides at paragraph 9(b) of the Conditions that the insurer “shall have no liability for loss or damage” until there has been a final determination by the courts adverse to the title as insured.

Let’s assume that the insurer has attempted unsuccessfully to defeat an adverse title claimant in litigation 而且 then chooses option (c)—that is, 保险公司决定赔偿被保险人“本保单规定的损失或损害”.“损失的衡量标准是什么? 该措施由2006年ALTA保单条件第8(a)段确定. 根据第8(a)段, the insurer’s liability “shall not exceed the lesser of” the policy limits or “the difference between the value of the Title as insured 而且 the value of the Title subject to the risk insured against by this policy.”[1] 换句话说, the measure of indemnity due to the insured is the loss in property value attributable to the covered title defect.

在实践中, 这意味着如果缺陷导致被保险人对保险财产的所有权完全丧失, 可补偿的损失就是财产的公平市场价值. If the defect results in a partial loss—which could be either the loss of title to a portion of the insured property or an encumbrance, 如留置权或奴役, 影响被保险财产——那么损失是通过对被保险财产的估价来衡量的, 就好像没有缺陷一样)和有缺陷的财产, 区别在于损失的大小. 这听起来很简单, 尽管在实践中, 根据保单的损失公式,可能会有关于估值的争议.

但是其他类型的损失可能源于所有权缺陷? 假设, 例如, that the insured lost a highly profitable sale due to the title defect or that the pendency of litigation over the title delayed the start of construction on a large commercial development. 在一般情况下, unless there is a way to fold those losses somehow into the value differential calculation under Section 8(a), 它们将被视为根据产权政策不可恢复的后果性损害.

这种持有的一个例子是 美国第一银行诉. 第一个美国运输头衔. Co., 585 F. 3d 833, 838-39 (5th 圆形的. 2009), 第五巡回法院, 适用路易斯安那州法律, 认为根据标准产权保险单,相应的损失或损害是不可赔偿的. 除了, the policy does not cover additional costs or damage due to litigation delay stemming from efforts by the insurer to defend the insured title, 只要被保险人以“合理勤勉”的方式行事. 看到 世界杯正规买球网站头衔. Co. v. 协同一公司, 572 So. 2d 517(佛罗里达州. 经销. Ct. 应用程序. 4th 经销. 1990) (title insurer not liable for lost profits resulting from 33-month construction delay during pendency of litigation).

These limitations on the measure of loss compensable under a title insurance policy sometimes come as a surprise to insureds. 但它们已经融入了ALTA政策形式的语言和历史中. 作为回报,世界杯正规买球网站将广泛覆盖所有权缺陷, 产权保险公司将损失的衡量限制在产权缺陷造成的价值差异上. 其他形式的损害,特别是间接损失,不在保单范围内.


There are nonetheless some limited instances in which a title insurer might be liable for consequential damages. 这种责任并非源于产权政策的条款和条件, 但因保险人违反合同或者违反其对被保险人应负的其他义务. 产权保险人违反保险合同的, 那么它就可以对违约通常允许的一切损害赔偿负责, 包括间接损害.

例如, 如果保险公司不恰当地完全拒绝承保, 即使它的理由可能是合理的, 那么它就要对违约的所有可预见后果负责. 策略限制不适用. E.g.美国联邦储备银行. 干腊肠. 银行v. 所有权登记. Co., 695 F. 3d 725 (7th 圆形的. 2012); 马特森岭诉. Clear Rock Title, LLP, 824 N.W. 2d 622, 630(明尼苏达州. 2012). The insurer also exposes itself to consequential damages if it fails to pursue curative litigation “in a reasonably diligent manner” as required by Section 9(a) of the Conditions of the st而且ard ALTA policy. 如果不努力采取治疗措施, 然后,保险公司可能会因由此造成的延误而受到损害. E.g., Premier Tierra Holdings v. 所有权登记. Co. 佛罗里达州的., 2011 U.S. 经销. lexis61781 (s.D. 特克斯. 2011).

Some insureds also have brought extra-contractual claims against title insurers based on breach of an alleged duty to search title fully 而且 disclose all defects. 此类索赔通常由被保险人主张,以规避产权政策中的损失措施. 这种说法是否可行是一个有争议的话题,超出了这篇短文的范围.

Suffice it to say that there is a wide split among the states on whether a title insurer owes its insureds any duties beyond the obligations expressly assumed in the contract of insurance. 据笔者所知, 没有关于这一主题的裁决适用路易斯安那州法律的报道.


所有类型的保险都是如此, 产权保险单的细则对于被保险人来说理解是很重要的. Underst而且ing how title policies measure compensable loss can guide insureds in navigating the title claims process. 最后, it is to the advantage of both insurers 而且 insureds that they work cooperatively when adverse claims do arise. That becomes easier to do when insureds underst而且 from the outset exactly what the measure of loss will be if the adverse claim cannot be defeated or settled.


[1] The ALTA mortgagee’s policy further limits the loss so that it cannot exceed the amount of the secured debt.

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了下: 商业地产, 行业新闻, 住宅地产, 产权保险, 产权保险, 法律标题
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